The angiopoietin-Tie signaling system is a vascular-specific receptor tyrosine kinase pathway that is essential for normal vascular development. Although the basic functioning of the pathway is understood, many uncertainties remain about the role of certain members of the pathway, particularly angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), in pathological vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. We summarize the components of the angiopoietin-Tie pathway and then focus on studies that highlight the role of Ang2 in disease settings, including cancer and inflammation. The expression of Ang2 is elevated in many cancers and types of inflammation, which prompted the development of specific reagents to block its interaction with the Tie2 receptor. The application of these reagents in preclinical models of inflammation and cancer has begun to elucidate the role of Ang2 in vascular remodeling and disease pathogenesis and has led to emerging clinical tests of Ang2 inhibitors.