Diel variability in seawater pH relates to calcification and benthic community structure on coral reefs

PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43843. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043843. Epub 2012 Aug 28.


Community structure and assembly are determined in part by environmental heterogeneity. While reef-building corals respond negatively to warming (i.e. bleaching events) and ocean acidification (OA), the extent of present-day natural variability in pH on shallow reefs and ecological consequences for benthic assemblages is unknown. We documented high resolution temporal patterns in temperature and pH from three reefs in the central Pacific and examined how these data relate to community development and net accretion rates of early successional benthic organisms. These reefs experienced substantial diel fluctuations in temperature (0.78°C) and pH (>0.2) similar to the magnitude of 'warming' and 'acidification' expected over the next century. Where daily pH within the benthic boundary layer failed to exceed pelagic climatological seasonal lows, net accretion was slower and fleshy, non-calcifying benthic organisms dominated space. Thus, key aspects of coral reef ecosystem structure and function are presently related to natural diurnal variability in pH.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aquatic Organisms / metabolism*
  • Calcification, Physiologic*
  • Coral Reefs*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Islands
  • Periodicity*
  • Seawater / chemistry*
  • Temperature
  • Time Factors

Grant support

This research was supported by grants from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Coral Reef Conservation Program (NOAA), the Nature Conservancy, the WWW Foundation, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Development Office and by generous donations from Scott and Karin Wilson. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.