Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in recurrent lymphoma after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
Methods: We reviewed 9 patients, 7 with follicular lymphoma (DLBCL), 1 with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and 1 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan 6 to 140 months after HSCT. Patients underwent 111In-ibritumomab scintigraphy and were treated 1 week later with standard 14.8 MBq/kg (n = 4) or 11.1 MBq/kg (n = 4) 90Y-ibritumomab. One patient who had allo-HSCT had reduced activity (70%) treatment.
Results: Among the 7 FL patients, we observed complete response (CR) in 2 patients and partial response (PR) in 5 patients. One patient with CR relapsed after 15 months; the other persisted 43.5 months after RIT. Of 5 patients with PR, 3 relapsed between 13 and 17 months; 1 persisted until unrelated death at 11.5 months. The fifth patient with PR received adoptive immunotherapy and improved to metabolic (FDG-PET) CR that persists 45.5 and 41 months after 90Y-ibritumomab and immunotherapy, respectively. Patients with MCL and DLBCL progressed or experienced stabilization (5 months), respectively. Six patients had grade 1 to 3 bone marrow (BM) toxicity and recovered within 3 months. Three patients having 90Y-ibritumomab 6, 14, and 24 months after HSCT experienced grade 4 BM toxicity. One of them (RIT 24 months after HSCT) recovered after 3 months, another delayed after 9 months, and the third patient only partially recovered, eventually developed myelodysplasia, and was allografted.
Conclusions: Radioimmunotherapy after HSCT is an effective rescue therapy in FL. However, BM toxicity may be important; 3 of 8 patients treated with standard 90Y-ibritumomab activity experienced grade 4 BM toxicity, with incomplete recovery 3 months after RIT in 2 patients, both treated early (6 and 14 months) after HSCT.