PPTOX III: environmental stressors in the developmental origins of disease--evidence and mechanisms

Toxicol Sci. 2013 Feb;131(2):343-50. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfs267. Epub 2012 Sep 5.


Fetal and early postnatal development constitutes the most vulnerable time period of human life in regard to adverse effects of environmental hazards. Subtle effects during development can lead to functional deficits and increased disease risk later in life. The hypothesis stating that environmental exposures leads to altered programming and, thereby, to increased susceptibility to disease or dysfunction later in life has garnered much support from both experimental and epidemiological studies. Similar observations have been made on the long-term impact of nutritional unbalance during early development. In an effort to bridge the fields of nutritional and environmental developmental toxicity, the Society of Toxicology sponsored this work. This report summarizes novel findings in developmental toxicity as reported by select invited experts and meeting attendees. Recommendations for the application and improvement of current and future research efforts are also presented.

Publication types

  • Congress
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease / etiology*
  • Environmental Exposure*
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Gene Expression
  • Humans
  • Immune System / physiology
  • Risk Factors