Context: Gum guggul, a resinous exudate of the plant Commiphora mukul Engl. (Burseraceae), has been found efficacious in the treatment of bone fractures, arthritis, and hyperlipidemic disorders.
Objective: The present study is an effort to explore the anti-bone-resorptive potential of the dried methanol extract of the gummy exudate of C. mukul (MECM) in ovariectomized rat model.
Materials and methods: The animals were randomly divided into five groups of equal size (n = 6). Animals in all the groups were ovariectomized except group 1, which was sham operated. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were treated with Raloxifene, MECM 250 mg/kg and MECM 500 mg/kg, respectively. The 2nd group was fed with vehicle.
Assessment: biochemical estimations, viz., alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartarate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), serum calcium (Ca); biomechanical evaluations, and histopathological examinations.
Results: The LD(50) of MECM was found to be > 2500 mg/kg orally. A significant elevation was observed in the ALP, TRAP, Ca and cholesterol levels in the 2nd group with a significant reduction in biomechnical strength. Groups 3, 4 and 5, showed a significant reduction in TRAP and ALP levels (p < 0.001). The Ca levels were normalized in the groups 4 and 5, while cholesterol levels dropped in group 5. The bone strength, however, was normalized in all the groups (p < 0.001) along with the histopathology.
Discussion and conclusion: Findings suggested a significant gain in bone strength and nearly complete restoration of bone microarchitecture along with lowered levels of TRAP indicating the anti-bone resorptive potential of the extract.