Methanol extract of dried exudate of Commiphora mukul prevents bone resorption in ovariectomized rats

Pharm Biol. 2012 Oct;50(10):1330-6. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2012.675339.


Context: Gum guggul, a resinous exudate of the plant Commiphora mukul Engl. (Burseraceae), has been found efficacious in the treatment of bone fractures, arthritis, and hyperlipidemic disorders.

Objective: The present study is an effort to explore the anti-bone-resorptive potential of the dried methanol extract of the gummy exudate of C. mukul (MECM) in ovariectomized rat model.

Materials and methods: The animals were randomly divided into five groups of equal size (n = 6). Animals in all the groups were ovariectomized except group 1, which was sham operated. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were treated with Raloxifene, MECM 250 mg/kg and MECM 500 mg/kg, respectively. The 2nd group was fed with vehicle.

Assessment: biochemical estimations, viz., alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartarate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), serum calcium (Ca); biomechanical evaluations, and histopathological examinations.

Results: The LD(50) of MECM was found to be > 2500 mg/kg orally. A significant elevation was observed in the ALP, TRAP, Ca and cholesterol levels in the 2nd group with a significant reduction in biomechnical strength. Groups 3, 4 and 5, showed a significant reduction in TRAP and ALP levels (p < 0.001). The Ca levels were normalized in the groups 4 and 5, while cholesterol levels dropped in group 5. The bone strength, however, was normalized in all the groups (p < 0.001) along with the histopathology.

Discussion and conclusion: Findings suggested a significant gain in bone strength and nearly complete restoration of bone microarchitecture along with lowered levels of TRAP indicating the anti-bone resorptive potential of the extract.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Acid Phosphatase / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Bone Density / drug effects
  • Bone Density Conservation Agents / administration & dosage
  • Bone Density Conservation Agents / isolation & purification
  • Bone Density Conservation Agents / pharmacology*
  • Bone Resorption / etiology
  • Bone Resorption / prevention & control*
  • Calcium / blood
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Commiphora / chemistry*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Isoenzymes / metabolism
  • Methanol / chemistry
  • Ovariectomy
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Raloxifene Hydrochloride / pharmacology
  • Random Allocation
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase


  • Bone Density Conservation Agents
  • Isoenzymes
  • Plant Extracts
  • Raloxifene Hydrochloride
  • Cholesterol
  • Acid Phosphatase
  • Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase
  • Calcium
  • Methanol