Matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation is the first alternative in the absence of a matched sibling donor. For patients without a suitable adult donor, we have adopted the dual stem cell transplantation protocol consisting of cord blood (CB) in combination with CD34(+) cells from a third party HLA-mismatched donor. We analyzed the outcomes of patients undergoing both procedures in a single center. Starting in 2004, a total of 20 patients with high-risk disease underwent 22 dual transplants and 25 patients underwent myeloablative MUD transplantation. The 30-day cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was similar in both groups (91% and 95%), with a median time to engraftment of 14 and 16 days, respectively. Grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease was more frequent in the MUD group (40% versus 5%). Except for a tendency toward a higher incidence of viral hemorrhagic cystitis in the dual transplantation group, posttransplantation infectious events were comparable in the 2 groups. The 3-year cumulative incidence rates of relapse (41% versus 44%) and nonrelapse mortality (30% versus 25%) were similar in the MUD and dual transplantation cohorts. Estimated 3-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 47% and 41%, respectively, with no survival advantage for either group. In our experience, dual transplantation offers survival rates comparable to those from myeloablative MUD transplantation with similar nonrelapse mortality rates.
Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.