Presentation, management, and outcomes of 25 748 acute coronary syndrome admissions in Kerala, India: results from the Kerala ACS Registry

Eur Heart J. 2013 Jan;34(2):121-9. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs219. Epub 2012 Sep 7.


Aims: There are limited contemporary data on the presentation, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) admissions in India. We aimed to develop a prospective registry to address treatment and health systems gaps in the management of ACSs in Kerala, India.

Methods and results: We prospectively collected data on 25 748 consecutive ACS admissions from 2007 to 2009 in 125 hospitals in Kerala. We evaluated data on presentation, management, and in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). We created random-effects multivariate regression models to evaluate predictors of outcomes while accounting for confounders. Mean (SD) age at presentation was 60 (12) years and did not differ among ACS types [ST-segment myocardial infarction (STEMI) = 37%; non-STEMI = 31%; unstable angina = 32%]. In-hospital anti-platelet use was high (>90%). Thrombolytics were used in 41% of STEMI, 19% of non-STEMI, and 11% of unstable angina admissions. Percutaneous coronary intervention rates were marginally higher in STEMI admissions. Discharge medication rates were variable and generally suboptimal (<80%). In-hospital mortality and MACE rates were highest for STEMI (8.2 and 10.3%, respectively). After adjustment, STEMI diagnosis (vs. unstable angina) [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval = 4.06 (2.36, 7.00)], symptom-to-door time >6 h [OR = 2.29 (1.73, 3.02)], and inappropriate use of thrombolysis [OR = 1.33 (0.92, 1.91)] were associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality and door-to-needle time <30 min [OR = 0.44 (0.27, 0.72)] was associated with lower mortality. Similar trends were seen for risk of MACE.

Conclusion: These data represent the largest ACS registry in India and demonstrate opportunities for improving ACS care.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / mortality
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / therapy*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Fibrinolytic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Prospective Studies
  • Registries
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Fibrinolytic Agents
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors