Physiologic monitoring practices during pediatric procedural sedation: a report from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012 Nov;166(11):990-8. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2012.1023.


Objectives: To describe the frequency of different physiologic monitoring modalities and combinations of modalities used during pediatric procedural sedation; to describe how physiologic monitoring varies among different classes of patients, health care providers (ie, ranging from anesthesiologists to emergency medicine physicians to nurse practitioners), procedures, and sedative medications employed; and to determine the proportion of sedations meeting published guidelines for physiologic monitoring. DESIGN This was a prospective, observational study from September 1, 2007, through March 31, 2011.

Setting: Data were collected in areas outside of the operating room, such as intensive care units, radiology, emergency departments, and clinics.

Participants: Thirty-seven institutions comprise the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium that prospectively collects data on procedural sedation/anesthesia performed outside of the operating room in all children up to age 21 years.

Main outcome measures: Data including demographics, procedure performed, provider level, adverse events, medications, and physiologic monitors used are entered into a web-based system.

Results: Data from 114 855 subjects were collected and analyzed. The frequency of use of each physiologic monitoring modality by health care provider type, medication used, and procedure performed varied significantly. The largest difference in frequency of monitoring use was seen between providers using electrocardiography (13%-95%); the smallest overall differences were seen in monitoring use based on the American Society of Anesthesiologists classifications (1%-10%). Guidelines published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Emergency Physicians, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists for nonanesthesiologists were adhered to for 52% of subjects.

Conclusions: A large degree of variability exists in the use of physiologic monitoring modalities for pediatric procedural sedation. Differences in monitoring are evident between sedation providers, medications, procedures, and patient types.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Anesthesia*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Conscious Sedation*
  • Databases, Factual
  • Deep Sedation*
  • Female
  • Guideline Adherence / statistics & numerical data*
  • Healthcare Disparities / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / methods
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / standards
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / statistics & numerical data*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians' / statistics & numerical data*
  • United States
  • Young Adult