Fluoroscopic transcervical fallopian tube recanalization was performed in 100 consecutive patients with infertility and proximal tubal obstruction documented with hysterosalpingography. In 86 patients, the procedure enabled at least one tube to be opened. Twenty-six intrauterine pregnancies resulted from the successful recanalization. A well-defined subset of 20 patients were evaluated to better define the treatment effect of fallopian tube recanalization. All 20 had bilateral proximal tubal obstruction without other tubal disease, and all had been recommended for tubal microsurgery or in vitro fertilization. Recanalization of one or both tubes was successful in 19 of these women (95%). Nine patients conceived (47%) without receiving any other therapy, and the average time from procedure to conception was 4 months. All pregnancies were intrauterine. Eight of the 10 patients who did not conceive underwent follow-up hysterosalpingography an average of 6 months following the procedure; four (50%) demonstrated reocclusion of both tubes. The authors conclude that nonsurgical fallopian tube recanalization is an effective treatment for infertility caused by proximal tubal obstruction.