The Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructures field-emission arrays (FEAs) were hydrothermally synthesized on AZO/glass substrate. The samples with Al-dosage of 3 at.% show the morphology as nanowires vertically grown on the substrates and a structure of c-axis elongated single-crystalline wurtzite. The good field-emission (i.e., the large anode current and low fluctuation of 15.9%) can be found by AZO nanostructure FEAs with well-designed Al-dosage (i.e., 3 at.%) because of the vertical nanowires with the less structural defects and superior crystallinity. Moreover, the Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of near band-edge emission (NBE) decreased as the increase of annealing temperature, representing the compensated structural defects during oxygen ambient annealing. After the oxygen annealing at 500 degrees C, the hydrothermal AZO nanostructure FEAs revealed the excellent electrical characteristics (i.e., the larger anode current and uniform distribution of induced fluorescence) and enhanced field-emission stability (i.e., the lowest current fluctuation of 5.97%).