Proportion and extent of manifestation of molar-incisor-hypomineralizations according to different phenotypes

J Public Health Dent. 2014 Winter;74(1):42-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-7325.2012.00365.x. Epub 2012 Sep 13.


Objective: This epidemiological study aimed to assess the proportion and extent of manifestation of enamel hypomineralization, including molar-incisor-hypomineralization (MIH), in the permanent and primary dentition.

Methods: A total of 693 children enrolled in an ongoing birth cohort study (GINIplus-10) were examined at their 10-year follow-up. Enamel hypomineralization was scored in the primary and permanent dentition on a tooth- and surface-related level based on the criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD). Children were grouped according to their distribution pattern of enamel hypomineralization: children with a minimum of one hypomineralized tooth in the primary dentition (ht ≥ 1) and permanent dentition (HT ≥ 1); with a minimum of one hypomineralization on at least one first permanent molar (MIH); and with hypomineralization on at least one first permanent molar and permanent incisor (M + IH). For each group, the mean values of hypomineralized primary teeth (ht), permanent teeth (HT), and permanent surfaces (HS) were calculated.

Results: The proportion of affected children was 36.5 percent (HT ≥ 1), 14.7 percent (MIH), and 9.4 percent (M + IH); 6.9 percent of the subjects had a minimum of one affected primary tooth (ht ≥ 1). The mean number of hypomineralized permanent teeth and surfaces were 2.3HT/2.9HS (HT ≥ 1), 3.4HT/4.8HS (MIH), and 4.2HT/5.9HS (M + IH). The mean number of hypomineralized primary teeth amounted to 0.1ht in the entire study population.

Conclusions: Enamel hypomineralization can be detected frequently in this study sample. Children with M + IH showed the highest number of affected teeth and surfaces followed by those with MIH.

Keywords: dental enamel; epidemiology; molar incisor hypomineralization; proportion; tooth hypomineralization.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Calcification, Physiologic*
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Incisor
  • Molar
  • Phenotype