Limited data are available regarding the effects of domestic chores workload on psychological problems among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China. The current study aims to examine association between children's depressive symptoms and the domestic chores workload (i.e., the frequency and the amount of time doing domestic chores). Data were derived from the baseline survey of a longitudinal study which investigated the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on psychological problems of children. A total of 1449 children in family-based care were included in the analysis: 579 orphaned children who lost one or both parents due to AIDS, 466 vulnerable children living with one or both parents being infected with HIV, and 404 comparison children who did not have HIV/AIDS-infected family members in their families. Results showed differences on domestic chores workload between children affected by HIV/AIDS (orphans and vulnerable children) and the comparison children. Children affected by HIV/AIDS worked more frequently and worked longer time on domestic chores than the comparison children. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that domestic chores workload was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The data suggest that children affected by HIV/AIDS may face increasing burden of domestic chores and it is necessary to reduce the excessive workload of domestic chores among children affected by HIV/AIDS through increasing community-based social support for children in the families affected by HIV/AIDS.