Increased frequency of anxiety, depression, quality of life and sexual life in young hypogonadotropic hypogonadal males and impacts of testosterone replacement therapy on these conditions

Endocr J. 2012;59(12):1099-105. doi: 10.1507/endocrj.ej12-0134. Epub 2012 Aug 31.


Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is defined as the failure in production of gonadal hormones, thus resulting in lower amounts of testosterone. Depression, anxiety and decreased quality of life are the most common psychopathological conditions in young hypogonadal men. The aim of the present study was to assess the still debated relationship with testosterone levels and psychological symptoms in young male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). Thirty-nine young male patients with CHH and 40 age-matched healthy males were enrolled in the present study. The impact of testosterone replacement treatment (TRT) on the patients' anxiety and depression levels, sexual function and quality of life were assessed before and after 6 months of treatment using valid and reliable scales, including the Short Form-36 (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Arizona Sexual Experiences (ASEX). Patients with CHH had significantly higher scores for BDI, BAI, and ASEX than the control subjects at baseline (p=0.011, p=0.036, p<0.001, respectively). The ASEX and BDI scores significantly improved after the TRT (p<0.001 for both), while the improvement in the BAI score was not statistically significant (p=0.135). When compared to the control group, treatment naïve hypogonadal patients had more severe symptoms of sexual dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and worse quality of life. After 6 months of TRT, we observed improvements in the above parameters, suggesting that low endogenous levels of testosterone might be related to the increased incidence of psychological symptoms.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety / epidemiology*
  • Anxiety / etiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Depression / epidemiology*
  • Depression / etiology
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy / methods
  • Humans
  • Hypogonadism / complications
  • Hypogonadism / drug therapy*
  • Hypogonadism / epidemiology*
  • Hypogonadism / physiopathology
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Quality of Life*
  • Research Design
  • Sexual Behavior / drug effects
  • Sexual Behavior / physiology*
  • Sexual Behavior / psychology
  • Sexual Behavior / statistics & numerical data
  • Testosterone / pharmacology
  • Testosterone / therapeutic use*
  • Young Adult


  • Testosterone