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. 2012 Aug 28;6:23.
doi: 10.3389/fninf.2012.00023. eCollection 2012.

Automated Regional Behavioral Analysis for Human Brain Images

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Free PMC article

Automated Regional Behavioral Analysis for Human Brain Images

Jack L Lancaster et al. Front Neuroinform. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Behavioral categories of functional imaging experiments along with standardized brain coordinates of associated activations were used to develop a method to automate regional behavioral analysis of human brain images. Behavioral and coordinate data were taken from the BrainMap database (http://www.brainmap.org/), which documents over 20 years of published functional brain imaging studies. A brain region of interest (ROI) for behavioral analysis can be defined in functional images, anatomical images or brain atlases, if images are spatially normalized to MNI or Talairach standards. Results of behavioral analysis are presented for each of BrainMap's 51 behavioral sub-domains spanning five behavioral domains (Action, Cognition, Emotion, Interoception, and Perception). For each behavioral sub-domain the fraction of coordinates falling within the ROI was computed and compared with the fraction expected if coordinates for the behavior were not clustered, i.e., uniformly distributed. When the difference between these fractions is large behavioral association is indicated. A z-score ≥ 3.0 was used to designate statistically significant behavioral association. The left-right symmetry of ~100K activation foci was evaluated by hemisphere, lobe, and by behavioral sub-domain. Results highlighted the classic left-side dominance for language while asymmetry for most sub-domains (~75%) was not statistically significant. Use scenarios were presented for anatomical ROIs from the Harvard-Oxford cortical (HOC) brain atlas, functional ROIs from statistical parametric maps in a TMS-PET study, a task-based fMRI study, and ROIs from the ten "major representative" functional networks in a previously published resting state fMRI study. Statistically significant behavioral findings for these use scenarios were consistent with published behaviors for associated anatomical and functional regions.

Keywords: BrainMap; ICA; Mango; TMS-PET; behavior analysis; brain atlas; fMRI; region of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Behavior analysis of left-hand finger tapping. (A) High-resolution brain MRI with ROI from a functional MRI (fMRI) study, (B) surface rendering to illustrate the 3-D nature of the ROI, and (C) sub-domains listed by descending z-scores with statistically significant behaviors highlighted. Data can be viewed as a bar graph or exported as an Excel compatible file.
Figure 2
Figure 2
A five-step process is used to extract coordinate and behavior data from the BrainMap database and formulate a behavioral probability density function (PDF) as a 4-D image indexed using x-y-z coordinates and behavior (b).
Figure 3
Figure 3
The ‘Action:Execution’ behavior sub-domain image. Activation foci are overlaid onto gray matter from the Talairach Daemon (Lancaster et al., 2000) to provide an anatomical background. Crosshair at (−4, 0, 0).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Activation foci from all 51 behavior sub-domains are distributed throughout the Talairach brain. Outline from the Talairach Daemon. Crosshair at (−28, 0, 0).

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