Comparison of frequency of undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in current or former tobacco smokers having ischaemic heart disease

Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. Apr-Jun 2012;54(2):111-6.


Background and objectives: This study compares the frequency of undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in tobacco smokers suffering from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and analyses the association of COPD severity with status, type and duration of smoking.

Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study conducted in current and former cigarette, hookah and combined cigarette and hookah smokers with IHD to detect previously undiagnosed COPD through spirometry.

Results: Among 124 males with IHD, majority [74 (59.7%)] were former smokers and were in the age ranged between 42 to 78 years. All had dyspnoea up to grade 4 and 64 (51.6%) also reported chronic cough and sputum production. According to type of smoking, 64 (51.6%) smoked cigarettes, 30 (24.2%) smoked hookah and 30 (24.2%) smoked both hookah and cigarettes. Forty-seven (37.9%) were found to have COPD, 24 (37.5%) among cigarette smokers, 12 (40%) among hookah smokers, while 11 (36.7%) were from cigarette and hookah smokers. Duration of smoking, its type and magnitude had no association with severity of COPD.

Conclusions: The frequency of undiagnosed COPD is high in smokers with IHD. Hookah and combined hookah and cigarette smokers are almost as susceptible to develop COPD as are cigarette smokers.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Ischemia / epidemiology*
  • Myocardial Ischemia / etiology
  • Pakistan / epidemiology
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / diagnosis
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / epidemiology*
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / etiology
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Smoking / adverse effects*