Role of liposomal amphotericin B prophylaxis after liver transplantation compared with fluconazole for high-risk patients. impact on infections and mortality within one year

Transplant Proc. 2012 Sep;44(7):1977-81. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2012.06.013.


Background: Fungal infections are still one of the most important issue in liver transplant patients, contributing considerably to both morbidity and mortality. Few studies have been published comparing antifungal protocols for their impact on liver transplant (OLT) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of liposomal amphotericin B compared with fluconazole prophylaxis on morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation.

Methods: We evaluated all 44 patients undergoing OLT from January 2006 to January 2009 who were enrolled and randomized to undergo treatment with Amphotericin B (3 mg/kg/d; group A = 25 patients) or fluconazole (800 mg Loading dose and thereafter 400 mg/d according to renal parameters and immunosuppressant trough levels; group B = 18 patients) for at least 7 to 14 days with 12 months follow-up after liver transplantation. A multivariate analysis assessed factors associated with infections and mortality.

Results: Neither antifungal prophylaxis was associated with a fungal episode; however, group A patients experienced fewer bacterial infectious episodes (Mann-Whitney U test P < .05). Furthermore, no renal impairment was observed in either groups. Nonetheless, patients undergoing fluconazole prophylaxis showed significant increases in immunosuppressive trough levels requiring dose adjustment.

Conclusion: We observed comparable results of fluconazole and liposomal amphotericin B to prevent invasive fungal infections throughout 12 months after surgery. The latter drug was associated with fewer bacterial infections after liver transplantation.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Amphotericin B / pharmacology*
  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Infections / epidemiology*
  • Infections / mortality
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Liver Transplantation*
  • Multivariate Analysis


  • Antifungal Agents
  • liposomal amphotericin B
  • Amphotericin B