Effects of immunization with natural and recombinant lysine decarboxylase on canine gingivitis development

Vaccine. 2012 Oct 19;30(47):6706-12. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.08.028. Epub 2012 Sep 11.


Periodontal disease, gingival inflammation (gingivitis) and periodontal attachment loss (periodontitis), causes tooth loss and susceptibility to chronic inflammation. Professionally scaling and cleaning the teeth regularly controls the disease, but is expensive in companion animals. Eikenella corrodens is common in canine oral cavities where it is a source of lysine decarboxylase (LDC). In human dental biofilms (plaques), LDC converts lysine to cadaverine and impairs the gingival epithelial barrier to bacteria. LDC vaccination may therefore retard gingivitis development. Year-old beagle dogs provided blood samples, and had weight and clinical measurements (biofilm and gingivitis) recorded. After scaling and cleaning, two dogs were immunized subcutaneously with 0.2mg native LDC from E. corrodens and 2 sets of four dogs with 0.2mg recombinant LDC purified from Escherichia coli. A third set of 4 dogs was immunized intranasally. Rehydragel(®), Emulsigen(®), Polygen™ or Carbigen™ were used as adjuvant. Four additional pairs of dogs were sham-immunized with each adjuvant alone (controls). Immunizations were repeated twice, 3 weeks apart, and clinical measurements were obtained after another 2 weeks, when the teeth were scaled and cleaned again. Tooth brushing was then stopped and the diet was changed from hard to soft chow. Clinical measurements were repeated after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Compared with sham-immunized dogs, gingivitis was reduced over all 8 weeks of soft diet after subcutaneous immunization with native LDC, or after intranasal immunization with recombinant LDC in Carbigen™, but for only 6 of the 8 weeks after subcutaneous immunization with recombinant LDC in Emulsigen(®) (repeated measures ANOVA). Subcutaneous vaccination induced a strong serum IgG antibody response that decreased during the soft diet period, whereas intranasal immunization induced a weak serum IgA antibody response that did not decrease. Immunization with recombinant LDC may provide protection from gingivitis if procedures are optimized.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation
  • Base Sequence
  • Biofilms
  • Cadaverine / biosynthesis
  • Carboxy-Lyases / immunology
  • Carboxy-Lyases / therapeutic use*
  • Dogs
  • Eikenella corrodens / enzymology
  • Gingivitis / prevention & control
  • Gingivitis / veterinary*
  • Immunization / veterinary*
  • Immunoglobulin A / blood
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Periodontal Index
  • Periodontitis / prevention & control
  • Periodontitis / veterinary*
  • Recombinant Proteins / immunology
  • Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use
  • Toothbrushing


  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Carboxy-Lyases
  • lysine decarboxylase
  • Cadaverine