Engineered autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: alternative to cleft alveolar bone graft surgery

J Craniofac Surg. 2012 Sep;23(5):1558-63. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e31825e4e30.

Abstract

Human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) accelerates bone regeneration but is associated with limited cementum and periodontal ligament regeneration, local root resorption, and ankylosis. This study assessed a new approach to the regeneration of the alveolar bone and periodontal attachment apparatus using a combination of ex vivo autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) engineered by replication defective adenovirus to express the BMP-2 gene and pluronic F127 (PF127) in a large mammalian animal model. Bilateral maxillary periodontal defects were created over the premolar area in 9 mature male miniature swine. The 18 defects were randomly assigned to receive either BMP-2-expressing MSCs in the advBMP-2 group or MSCs alone in the MSC group. The regenerated periodontal attachment apparatus was evaluated histologically, and the total regenerated bone volume was calculated from three-dimensional computed tomography analysis. Three months after implantation, significant bone volume was regenerated in the advBMP-2 group. Periodontal apparatus regeneration was significantly better in the advBMP-2 group. New cementum and Sharpey fibers were observed on the denuded root surfaces in the advBMP-2 group, whereas incomplete healing with localized root surface resorption was noted in the control group. The use of ex vivo BMP-2-engineered autologous MSCs enhanced bone and periodontal apparatus regeneration in maxillary alveolar and periodontal defects in swine. This novel integrated approach might be suitable for clinical periodontal apparatus repair. This may be an alternative for cleft alveolar bone graft surgery.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenoviridae
  • Alveolar Bone Loss / diagnostic imaging
  • Alveolar Bone Loss / surgery*
  • Animals
  • Blotting, Western
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 / metabolism
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 / pharmacology*
  • Bone Regeneration
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Male
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation / methods*
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / metabolism
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / diagnostic imaging
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / surgery*
  • Random Allocation
  • Regeneration
  • Swine
  • Tissue Scaffolds
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Transplantation, Autologous

Substances

  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2