The mitochondrial sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferases from potato tubers and pea leaves were investigated with respect to their intraorganelle localization, their positional and substrate specificities, and their fatty acid selectivities. In mitochondria from potato tubers both enzymes were found to be located in the outer membrane. The 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase of pea mitochondria showed the same intraorganelle localization whereas the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase behaved like a soluble protein of the intermembrane space. The sn-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase of both potato and pea mitochondria used sn-glycerol-3-phosphate but not dihydroxyacetone phosphate as acyl acceptor and exclusively catalyzed the formation of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate which subsequently served as substrate for the second acylation reaction at its C-2 position. Both acyltransferases of potato as well as pea mitochondria showed higher activities with acyl-CoA than with the corresponding acyl-(acyl carrier protein) thioesters. When different acyl-CoA thioesters were offered separately, the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase of potato mitochondria displayed no fatty acid specificity whereas the enzyme of pea mitochondria revealed one for saturated acyl groups. On the other hand, the mitochondrial 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferases from both potato tubers and pea leaves were more active on unsaturated than on saturated acyl-CoA thioesters. Furthermore, these enzymes preferentially used oleoyl- and linoleoyl-CoA when they were offered in a mixture with saturated ones, although the fatty acid selectivity of the pea enzyme was less pronounced than that of the potato enzyme. The sn-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase of potato mitochondria displayed a slight preference for saturated acyl groups.