Poststroke shoulder pain is a common issue and can be caused by glenohumeral subluxation. This entity hinders function and quality of life and is caused by changes in tone and loss of fi ne control of the shoulder joints' supporting structures after a stroke. Current treatments are limited in number and effectiveness and have significant problems and limitations to their use. Furthermore, prior to percutaneous implantable neuromuscular electrical stimulation, there was no evidence for any treatment to provide relief for chronic hemiplegic shoulder pain from glenohumeral subluxation. This clinical review provides a comprehensive review of the anatomy, pathogenesis, clinical features, management, and clinical efficacy of current treatment modalities.