Structural and immunological differences between the two components that are usually present in unequal quantities in Bordetella pertussis endotoxin preparations and are visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis have been studied by using strains 1414, A100, and 134, all in phase I. According to analyses by both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and thin-layer chromatography, the minor (8%) component of the endotoxin of strain 1414 (endotoxin 1414) appeared to be the predominating component of endotoxins A100 and 134. The masses of the carbohydrate chains isolated from endotoxin A100 and from the major component of endotoxin 1414 were 1,649 and 2,311 atomic mass units, respectively, as determined by 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry. Comparison of the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of these chains established that four N-acetyl groups, an N-methyl group, and a 6-deoxy function, which characterize the nonreducing, distal trisaccharide of the glycose chain of strain 1414, were absent from that of strain A100. The antigenicity of endotoxin 1414, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was higher than that of endotoxin A100, but fell below it when the glycose chain of endotoxin 1414 was deprived of seven sugars by treatment with nitrous acid. This observation suggests that at least three (distal, proximal, and intermediate) regions of the glycose chain of endotoxin 1414 carry antigenic determinants. One of these, located in the distal trisaccharide, is absent from both endotoxins A100 and 134.