Local and global functions of Timeless and Tipin in replication fork protection

Cell Cycle. 2012 Nov 1;11(21):3945-55. doi: 10.4161/cc.21989. Epub 2012 Sep 17.


The eukaryotic cell replicates its chromosomal DNA with almost absolute fidelity in the course of every cell cycle. This accomplishment is remarkable considering that the conditions for DNA replication are rarely ideal. The replication machinery encounters a variety of obstacles on the chromosome, including damaged template DNA. In addition, a number of chromosome regions are considered to be difficult to replicate owing to DNA secondary structures and DNA binding proteins required for various transactions on the chromosome. Under these conditions, replication forks stall or break, posing grave threats to genomic integrity. How does the cell combat such stressful conditions during DNA replication? The replication fork protection complex (FPC) may help answer this question. Recent studies have demonstrated that the FPC is required for the smooth passage of replication forks at difficult-to-replicate genomic regions and plays a critical role in coordinating multiple genome maintenance processes at the replication fork.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism*
  • Chromatids / metabolism
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism
  • DNA / chemistry
  • DNA / metabolism
  • DNA Replication
  • Humans
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Schizosaccharomyces / metabolism
  • Telomere / metabolism


  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • cohesins
  • DNA