Purpose: In myeloma, B cells and plasma cells show a clonal relationship. Clonotypic B cells may represent a tumor-initiating compartment or cancer stem cell responsible for minimal residual disease in myeloma.
Experimental design: We report a study of 58 patients with myeloma at time of diagnosis or relapse. B cells in bone marrow were evaluated by multicolor flow cytometry and sorting. Clonality was determined by light chain and/or immunoglobulin chain gene rearrangement PCR. We also determined aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and colony formation growth. Drug sensitivity was tested with conventional and novel agents.
Results: Marrow CD19+ cells express a light chain identical to plasma cells and are therefore termed light chain restricted (LCR). The LCR B-cell mass is small in both newly diagnosed and relapsed patients (≤ 1%). Few marrow LCR B cells (~10%) are CD19+/CD34+, with the rest being more differentiated CD19+/CD34- B cells. Marrow LCR CD19+ B cells exhibit enhanced aldehyde dehydrogenase activity versus healthy controls. Both CD19+/CD34+ and CD19+/CD34- cells showed colony formation activity, with colony growth efficiency optimized when stroma-conditioned medium was used. B-cell progenitors showed resistance to melphalan, lenalidomide, and bortezomib. Panobinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, induced apoptosis of LCR B cells and CD138+ cells. LCR B cells are CD117, survivin, and Notch positive.
Conclusions: We propose that antigen-independent B-cell differentiation stages are involved in disease origination and progression in myeloma. Furthermore, investigations of myeloma putative stem cell progenitors may lead to novel treatments to eradicate the potential reservoir of minimal residual disease.