We used an antiserum directed against gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) fixed with glutaraldehyde (Hoskins et al., Cell Tissue Res. 244:243-252, '86) to label neurons with GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLI) in wholemounts of the stomatogastric ganglion and each segmental ganglion of crayfish, except the brain. Each abdominal ganglion had an average of 63 labeled neurons, or 10% of all their neurons. Each peripheral nerve of each abdominal ganglion except the last contained labeled axons. Within each segment, the first peripheral nerve, N1, had five axons; the second peripheral nerve, N2, had at most four; and the third peripheral nerve, N3, had two. In the last ganglion, N2 had one labeled axon, N3 had two and N6 had two; the other nerves contained no labeled axons. A tabulation of the identified inhibitory neurons in the abdominal ganglia revealed that 40% of these GABA-ergic neurons have been identified. The subesophageal ganglion had many labeled neurons in clusters that formed a repeating pattern; it also had labeled neurons near its dorsal midline. The thoracic ganglia contained more labeled neurons than did the abdominals, but their patterns of labeling were similar. The commissural ganglia contained three clusters of labeled neurons and sent labeled axons to the esophageal ganglion. The esophageal ganglion contained four labeled neurons and many labeled axons. The stomatogastric ganglion contained labeled axon terminals but not labeled neurons.