Purpose: We assess for frequency and predictive factors related to sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration receiving intravitreal injections of ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab.
Methods: A total of 328 patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (449 eyes) who presented to a single physician over a 6-month period were retrospectively assessed for baseline demographic/clinical information, total number of bevacizumab and/or ranibizumab injections, and sustained IOP elevation on 2 or more consecutive visits (absolute IOP >25 mmHg, increase above baseline >10 mmHg, or IOP of >21 mmHg and increase of >5 mmHg). Cox regression survival analysis and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess the influence of intravitreal injections on experiencing sustained IOP elevation.
Results: Overall, 32 eyes (7.1%) experienced sustained IOP elevation. Survival analysis showed a significant effect of the number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections on sustained IOP elevation (hazard ratio, 1.085; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.11, P < 0.001). Also, there was an increased odds ratio (16.1, P = 0.008) of sustained IOP elevation in eyes receiving ≥29 injections compared with ≤12 injections. After controlling for the confounder (prior intravitreal steroid injection), total number of injections still showed a statistically significant association (P = 0.002).
Conclusion: A greater number of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections is associated with an increased risk for sustained IOP elevation in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration receiving intravitreal ranbizumab and/or bevacizumab.