Gender difference in prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders: a retrospective study on 243 consecutive patients

Int J Med Sci. 2012;9(7):539-44. doi: 10.7150/ijms.4474. Epub 2012 Aug 30.


Background: This study evaluated the prevalence of the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) among patients with TMD symptoms.

Methods: Between September 2011 and December 2011, 243 consecutive patients (171 females, 72 males, mean age 41 years) who were referred to the Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon were examined physically and completed a questionnaire regarding age, gender, social status, general health, antidepressant drug usage, dental status, limited mouth opening, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sounds, and parafunctions (bruxism, clenching). The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and binary logistic regression model (alpha = 0.05).

Results: With a frequency of 92%, pain in the temporal muscle was the most common symptom, followed by pain during mouth opening (89%) in both genders. TMJ pain at rest, pain in the masseter muscle, clicking, grinding, and anti-depressant use were significantly more frequent in females than males. Age (p=0.006; odds ratio 0.954; 95% CI 0.922-0.987) and missing teeth (p=0.003; odds ratio 3.753; 95% CI 1.589-8.863) had significant effects on the prevalence of TMD.

Conclusion: Females had TMD signs and symptoms more frequently than males in the study population. The most common problem in both genders was pain.

Keywords: dental health.; epidemiology; oral parafunctions; orofacial pain; temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Sex Factors*
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disorders / epidemiology
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disorders / physiopathology*
  • Turkey / epidemiology
  • Young Adult