Continuous glucose monitoring after islet transplantation in type 1 diabetes: an excellent graft function (β-score greater than 7) Is required to abrogate hyperglycemia, whereas a minimal function is necessary to suppress severe hypoglycemia (β-score greater than 3)

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Nov;97(11):E2078-83. doi: 10.1210/jc.2012-2115. Epub 2012 Sep 20.


Context: For the last 10 yr, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has brought up new insights into the accuracy of blood glucose analysis.

Objective: Our objective was to determine how islet graft function was able to influence the various components of dysglycemia after islet transplantation (IT).

Design and setting: We conducted a single-arm open-labeled study with a 3-yr follow-up in a referral center ( identifiers NCT00446264 and NCT01123187).

Patients: Twenty-three consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes (14 islet alone, nine islet after kidney) received IT within 3 months using the Edmonton protocol.

Intervention: INTERVENTION included 72-h CGM before and 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 months after transplantation.

Main outcome measure: Graft function was estimated via β-score, a previously validated index (range 0-8) based on treatment requirements, C-peptide, blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin.

Results: At the 3-yr visit, graft function persisted in 19 patients (82%), and 10 (43%) remained insulin independent. Glycated hemoglobin decreased in the whole cohort from 8.3% (7.3-9.0%) at baseline to 6.7% (5.9-7.7%) at 3 yr [median (interquartile range), P < 0.01]. Mean glucose, glucose sd, and time spent with glycemia above 10 mmol/liter (hyperglycemia) and below 3 mmol/liter (hypoglycemia) were significantly lower after IT (P < 0.05 vs. baseline). The four CGM outcomes were related to β-score (P < 0.001). However, partial function (β-score >3) was sufficient to abrogate hypoglycemia; suboptimal function (β-score >5) was necessary to significantly improve mean glucose, glucose sd, and hyperglycemia; and optimal function (β score >7) was necessary to normalize them.

Conclusion: The four components of dysglycemia were not equally affected by the degree of islet graft function, which could have important implications for future development of β-cell replacement. A β-score above 3 dramatically reduced the occurrence of hypoglycemia.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring*
  • C-Peptide / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / surgery*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / blood
  • Hyperglycemia / surgery*
  • Hypoglycemia / blood
  • Hypoglycemia / surgery*
  • Islets of Langerhans Transplantation / methods*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Blood Glucose
  • C-Peptide
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A

Associated data