Effect of slosh mitigation on histologic markers of traumatic brain injury: laboratory investigation

J Neurosurg. 2012 Dec;117(6):1110-8. doi: 10.3171/2012.8.JNS12358. Epub 2012 Sep 21.


Object: Helmets successfully prevent most cranial fractures and skull traumas, but traumatic brain injury (TBI) and concussions continue to occur with frightening frequency despite the widespread use of helmets on the athletic field and battlefield. Protection against such injury is needed. The object of this study was to determine if slosh mitigation reduces neural degeneration, gliosis, and neuroinflammation.

Methods: Two groups of 10 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to impact-acceleration TBI. One group of animals was fitted with a collar inducing internal jugular vein (IJV) compression prior to injury, whereas the second group received no such collar prior to injury. All rats were killed 7 days postinjury, and the brains were fixed and embedded in paraffin. Tissue sections were processed and stained for markers of neural degeneration (Fluoro-Jade B), gliosis (glial fibrillary acidic protein), and neuroinflammation (ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1).

Results: Compared with the controls, animals that had undergone IJV compression had a 48.7%-59.1% reduction in degenerative neurons, a 36.8%-45.7% decrease in reactive astrocytes, and a 44.1%-65.3% reduction in microglial activation.

Conclusions: The authors concluded that IJV compression, a form of slosh mitigation, markedly reduces markers of neurological injury in a common model of TBI. Based on findings in this and other studies, slosh mitigation may have potential for preventing TBI in the clinical population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Brain Chemistry
  • Brain Concussion / metabolism
  • Brain Concussion / prevention & control
  • Brain Injuries / metabolism*
  • Brain Injuries / pathology
  • Brain Injuries / prevention & control*
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / analysis
  • Compression Bandages*
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis
  • Gliosis / metabolism*
  • Gliosis / pathology
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Jugular Veins*
  • Male
  • Microfilament Proteins / analysis
  • Nerve Degeneration / metabolism*
  • Nerve Degeneration / pathology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley


  • Aif1 protein, rat
  • Biomarkers
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • Microfilament Proteins