Implementing the 3Rs in neuroscience research: a reasoned approach

Neuron. 2012 Sep 20;75(6):948-50. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.09.001.


The 3Rs--replacement, reduction, and refinement--are aimed at minimizing the welfare costs to animals used in research. Some neuroscientists fear that implementing the 3Rs will prohibit essential studies. Others view them as fundamental ethical principles that improve the quality of research. A regulatory system that integrates science and welfare is most likely to deliver public confidence.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Testing Alternatives*
  • Animals
  • Biomedical Research* / ethics
  • Biomedical Research* / methods
  • Humans
  • Neurosciences* / ethics