Animal learning and training: implications for animal welfare

Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2012 Sep;15(3):387-98. doi: 10.1016/j.cvex.2012.06.008. Epub 2012 Jul 31.


Exotic animals are housed in a variety of settings, from pets at home, as display animals housed in wildlife centers and zoos, to those kept for interactive and outreach programs. The behavioral management program and medical care are major parts of an excellent animal care program. Because animals learn all the time, albeit through different mechanisms, animals are almost always "in training." Understanding animal learning when caring for and treating animals can greatly improve their welfare during experiences that are often related to involuntary procedures and where animals have little control over living conditions or procedures.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animal Welfare*
  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal*
  • Learning*
  • Reinforcement, Psychology