Personalized oncology is evidence-based, individualized medicine that delivers the right care to the right cancer patient at the right time and results in measurable improvements in outcomes and a reduction on health care costs. Evolving topics in personalized oncology such as genomic analysis, targeted drugs, cancer therapeutics and molecular diagnostics will be discussed in this review. Biomarkers and molecular individualized medicine are replacing the traditional "one size fits all" medicine. In the next decade the treatment of cancer will move from a reactive to a proactive discipline. The essence of personalized oncology lies in the use of biomarkers. These biomarkers can be from tissue, serum, urine or imaging and must be validated. Personalized oncology based on biomarkers is already having a remarkable impact. Three different types of biomarkers are of particular importance: predictive, prognostic and early response biomarkers. Tools for implementing preemptive medicine based on genetic and molecular diagnostic and interventions will improve cancer prevention. Imaging technologies such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Positron Emitted Tomography (PET) are already influencing the early detection and management of the cancer patient. Future advances in imaging are expected to be in the field of molecular imaging, integrated diagnostics, biology driven interventional radiology and theranostics. Molecular diagnostics identify individual cancer patients who are more likely to respond positively to targeted chemotherapies. Molecular diagnostics include testing for genes, gene expression, proteins and metabolites. The use of companion molecular diagnostics is expected to grow significantly in the future and will be integrated into new cancer therapies a single (bundled) package which will provide greater efficiency, value and cost savings. This approach represents a unique opportunity for integration, increased value in personalized oncology.
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