Glucose control and cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with diabetes mellitus: lessons learned from the megatrials

Heart Fail Clin. 2012 Oct;8(4):513-22. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2012.06.009. Epub 2012 Aug 11.


Glucose lowering should be approached by managing overall cardiovascular risk. Glycemic goals should be individualized based on duration of diabetes, preexisting cardiovascular disease, age, and life expectancy. Intensive glycemic control has consistently been shown to produce a substantial benefit for preventing long-term microvascular complications in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in patients with diabetes, microvascular complications cause substantial morbidity and disability. Thus, it is apparent that additional strategies on multimodal treatment options are necessary to promote effective management and prevention of diabetic complications.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / pathology*
  • Diabetes Complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Disease Progression
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Incidence
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome*
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A