Introduction: Titanium nitride oxide (TiNOx) coatings are known for their biocompatibility, hardness and high resistance to corrosion and wear. Further, they can be applied by plasma vapor deposition onto a wide variety of metallic, mineral, or organic substrates. In cell cultures, TiNOx coatings applied onto SLA (sandblasted, large grit, acid etched)-roughened titanium surfaces increased human primary osteoblast proliferation by 1.5 times in the first 2 weeks after seeding, while maintaining a high degree of cell differentiation. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were (i) to determine whether these findings would translate into the enhanced osseointegration of TiNOx-coated implants in vivo and (ii) to compare the osseointegration of Ti-SLA (titanium-SLA) and CoCr-SLA (cobalt-chromium-SLA) implants coated with TiNOx.
Methods: Forty-eight cylinders made of Ti-SLA, Ti-SLA-TiNOx (TiNOx-coated Ti-SLA) and CoCr-SLA-TiNOx (TiNOx-coated CoCr-SLA) were implanted into the lower jawbone of 8 minipigs. The bone-to-implant contact was determined after 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months.
Results: Osseointegration proceeded normally on all 3 surfaces, with equal activity after the first week of healing. After 2 weeks, bone-to-implant contact was 1.8 times higher on TiNOx coatings, either deposited on Ti or on CoCr. These differences fell off after 1 and 3 months of healing.
Conclusions: When compared to standard SLA titanium, TiNOx coatings enhance implant osseointegration during the first month of healing. Furthermore, this stimulating effect is independent of the substrate, leading to similar results whether the coating is applied onto SLA-Ti or onto SLA-CoCr.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.