Antimurine antibody formation following OKT3 therapy

Transplantation. 1990 Jan;49(1):48-51. doi: 10.1097/00007890-199001000-00010.

Abstract

OKT3 is an IgG2a murine monoclonal antibody directed against the CD3 antigen receptor of human T lymphocytes. A major concern with OKT3 treatment in solid organ transplant recipients is the development of antimouse antibody, which may preclude retreatment with this agent. We have administered OKT3 on 215 occasions (150 renal, 34 hepatic, 26 cardiac, 5 pancreatic) in 179 patients between April 1982 and December 1988. The mean duration of treatment was 10.5 days (range, 2-22 days). Antimouse antibody data were analyzed on the most recent 133 treatment courses where the antibody status was available pretreatment. Determination of antimouse antibody production was elicited by ELISA technology at days 0, 7, 14, and 28 of OKT3 treatment. Patients were categorized according to the antibody response as follows: (a) absence of antibody; (b) low titer (1:100); or (c) high titer (greater than or equal to 1:1000). Our earlier experience has demonstrated that retreatment with OKT3 is successful in groups a and b. The development of antimurine antibodies was analyzed with regard to the following parameters: (1) The duration of OKT3 treatment; (2) treatment type (prophylactic, primary, or secondary); (3) primary treatment or retreatment; (4) concomitant immunosuppressive regimen (double or triple therapy); (5) dosage of concomitant immunosuppressive drugs; and (6) transplant organ type. The following results were obtained. (1) Duration of treatment had no effect on antibody production (11.0 days in antibody negative and 10.0 days in antibody positive). (2) There was no difference in antibody formation rates for the first treatment of OKT3 when it was used as prophylaxis (26%), primary (19%), or secondary (27%) therapy. (3) Antibody formation rate with first treatment was 29%; with retreatment, patients who were antibody negative following first treatment became positive in 28% of cases, and retreated patients who were low titer positive following first treatment converted to high titer in 57% of cases. (4) Antibody formation was higher in patients receiving double immunosuppressive therapy (36%) than in those receiving triple immunosuppressive therapy (21%) during OKT3 treatment. (5) Concomitant immunosuppression was lower in the antibody-positive group during OKT3 therapy: steroids, 61 mg/day vs. 52 mg/day; azathioprine, 89 mg/day vs. 66 mg/day; CsA, 317 mg/day vs. 186 mg/day. (6) Antibody formation rates were lower in non-renal transplants following first treatment with OKT3 (liver 17%, heart 17%, kidney 28%); this reflects the higher doses of concomitant immunosuppressive therapy used in nonrenal transplants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic / biosynthesis*
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use*
  • Cyclosporins / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / immunology*
  • Immunosuppression
  • Mice

Substances

  • Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Cyclosporins
  • Immunoglobulin G