Current concepts in the evaluation and treatment of the shoulder in overhead-throwing athletes, part 1: physical characteristics and clinical examination

Sports Health. 2010 Jan;2(1):39-50. doi: 10.1177/1941738109338548.


The overhead-throwing athlete is a challenging sports medicine patient. The repetitive microtraumatic stresses imposed on the athlete's shoulder joint complex during the throwing motion constantly places the athlete at risk for injury. These stresses may effect several adaptations to normal shoulder range of motion, strength, and scapula position. The clinician should therefore appreciate the unique physical characteristics of the overhead-throwing athlete to accurately evaluate and treat throwing-related injuries.

Keywords: baseball; glenohumeral joint; scapula.