Current concepts in the evaluation and treatment of the shoulder in overhead throwing athletes, part 2: injury prevention and treatment

Sports Health. 2010 Mar;2(2):101-15. doi: 10.1177/1941738110362518.


The overhead throwing athlete is an extremely challenging patient in sports medicine. The repetitive microtraumatic stresses imposed on the athlete's shoulder joint complex during the throwing motion constantly place the athlete at risk for injury. Treatment of the overhead athlete requires the understanding of several principles based on the unique physical characteristics of the overhead athlete and the demands endured during the act of throwing. These principles are described and incorporated in a multiphase progressive rehabilitation program designed to prevent injuries and rehabilitate the injured athlete, both nonoperatively and postoperatively.

Keywords: baseball; glenohumeral joint; internal impingement; rotator cuff; scapula; superior labral anterior posterior lesion.