Objective: In immunocompromised patients, alternative schedules more immunogenic than the standard influenza vaccine regimen are necessary to enhance and prolong vaccine efficacy. We previously reported that the AS03A-adjuvanted 2009 A/H1N1v vaccine yielded a higher short-term immune response than the nonadjuvanted one in HIV-1-infected adults. This study reports the long-term persistence of the immune response.
Design and methods: In a prospective, multicenter, randomized, patient-blinded trial, two doses of AS03A-adjuvanted H1N1v vaccine containing 3.75 μg haemagglutinin (n = 155; group A) or nonadjuvanted H1N1v vaccine containing 15 μg haemagglutinin (n = 151; group B), were administered 21 days apart. Haemagglutination inhibition and neutralizing antibodies were assessed 6 and 12 months after vaccination.
Results: In group A and B, the seroprotection rates were 83.7 and 59.4% at month 6, and 70.4 and 49.3 at month 12, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, persistence of seroprotection 12 months after vaccination was negatively associated with current smoking (odds ratio = 0.6, P = 0.03) and positively related with the AS03A-adjuvanted H1N1v vaccine (odds ratio = 2.7, P = 0.0002).
Conclusion: In HIV-1-infected adults, two doses of adjuvanted influenza vaccine induce long-term persistence of immune response up to 1 year after vaccination.