This study described a fully automated method using on-line solid phase extraction of large volume injections coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to simultaneously detect a group of recalcitrant microconstituents (pharmaceuticals and personal care products, steroid hormones and sterols) in aqueous matrices. Samples (1 mL to 20 mL) were loaded to the preconcentration column at 1 mL/min, and the column was washed with 1000 μL of 25% methanol in LC/MS water to remove polar and ionic interferences before LC-MS/MS analysis. Three different atmospheric pressure ionization (API) techniques, including photoionization (APPI) with four different dopants (acetone, anisole, chlorobenzene and toluene), heated electrospray ionization (HESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), were evaluated on the basis of method detection limits (MDLs) and recoveries from different aqueous matrixes. Results indicated that APPI with toluene as dopant was the most sensitive ionization method for the majority of the analytes. When using 5 mL of sample, MDLs for pharmaceuticals and personal care products, including carbamazepine, DEET, caffeine, naproxen, acetaminophen and primidone, were between 0.3 ng/L and 15 ng/L. MDLs of hormones, including testosterone, equilenin, progesterone, equilin, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, estrone, androsterone, mestranol and estriol, were between 1.2 ng/L and 37 ng/L. The combination of APPI with dopant allowed the detection of two difficult to ionize fecal related sterols, such as coprostan-3-ol and coprostan-3-one with MDLs of 5.4 ng/L and 11 ng/L, respectively. Calculated MDLs are more than adequate for analysis of wastewater using 1 to 5 mL sample size and for surface waters using up to 20 mL sample size.
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.