Pulmonary cachexia is a prevalent, debilitating, and well-recognized feature of COPD associated with increased mortality and loss of peripheral and respiratory muscle function. The exact cause and underlying mechanisms of cachexia in COPD are still poorly understood. Increasing evidence, however, shows that pathological changes in intracellular mechanisms of muscle mass maintenance (i.e., protein turnover and myonuclear turnover) are likely involved. Potential factors triggering alterations in these mechanisms in COPD include oxidative stress, myostatin, and inflammation. In addition to muscle wasting, peripheral muscle in COPD is characterized by a fiber-type shift toward a more type II, glycolytic phenotype and an impaired oxidative capacity (collectively referred to as an impaired oxidative phenotype). Atrophied diaphragm muscle in COPD, however, displays an enhanced oxidative phenotype. Interestingly, intrinsic abnormalities in (lower limb) peripheral muscle seem more pronounced in either cachectic patients or weight loss-susceptible emphysema patients, suggesting that muscle wasting and intrinsic changes in peripheral muscle's oxidative phenotype are somehow intertwined. In this manuscript, we will review alterations in mechanisms of muscle mass maintenance in COPD and discuss the involvement of oxidative stress, inflammation, and myostatin as potential triggers of cachexia. Moreover, we postulate that an impaired muscle oxidative phenotype in COPD can accelerate the process of cachexia, as it renders muscle in COPD less energy efficient, thereby contributing to an energy deficit and weight loss when not dietary compensated. Furthermore, loss of peripheral muscle oxidative phenotype may increase the muscle's susceptibility to inflammation- and oxidative stress-induced muscle damage and wasting.
Keywords: COPD; cachexia; energy metabolism; muscle mass regulation; skeletal muscle.