Passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 can prevent infection in macaques and seems to delay HIV-1 rebound in humans. Anti-HIV antibodies are therefore of great interest for vaccine design. However, the basis for their in vivo activity has been difficult to evaluate systematically because of a paucity of small animal models for HIV infection. Here we report a genetically humanized mouse model that incorporates a luciferase reporter for rapid quantitation of HIV entry. An antibody's ability to block viral entry in this in vivo model is a function of its bioavailability, direct neutralizing activity, and effector functions.