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. 2012 Sep 26;4(153):153ps18.
doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3003471.

Pharmacogenomics and Patient Care: One Size Does Not Fit All

Free PMC article

Pharmacogenomics and Patient Care: One Size Does Not Fit All

Kathleen M Giacomini et al. Sci Transl Med. .
Free PMC article


The time is ripe to assess whether pharmacogenomics research--the study of the genetic basis for variation in drug response--has provided important insights into a personalized approach to prescribing and dosing medications. Here, we describe the status of the field and approaches for addressing some of the open questions in pharmacogenomics research and use of genetic testing in guiding drug therapy.


Fig. 1
Fig. 1. Ethnic representation
Shown are participants in pharmacogenomics GWA studies categorized by ethnicity. Data were obtained from (accessed 19 July 2012). At this time, 102 pharmacogenomics research GWA studies were included. Blue, European only (51 studies, 52,784 participants, 64.3%); turquoise, Asian only (23 studies, 10,957 participants, 13.3%); green, African only (2 studies, 1119 participants, 1.4%); black, Hispanic only (1 study, 229 participants, 0.3%); red, Others only (1 study, 429 participants, 0.52%); purple, More than one ethnic group (20 studies, 15,604 participants, 19.0%); magenta, Lymphoblastoid cell lines (4 studies, 995 participants, 1.2%).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2. Personalized medicine
Shown are the effects of the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genomic variants on warfarin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in human subjects.

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