Identifying between-person and within-person factors to enhance understanding of observed score profiles

Br J Math Stat Psychol. 2013 Nov;66(3):435-51. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8317.2012.02055.x. Epub 2012 Sep 28.


This study aims to reparameterize ordinary factors into between- and within-person factor effects and utilize an array of the within-person factor loadings as a latent profile which encapsulates all score responses of individuals in a population. To illustrate, the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) tests of cognitive abilities were analysed and one between- and two within-person factors were identified. The scoring patterns of individuals in the WJ-III sample were interpreted according to the within-person factor patterns. Regression analyses were performed to examine how much the within-person factors accounted for the person scoring patterns and criterion variables. Finally, the importance and applications of the between- and within-person factors are discussed.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance*
  • Aptitude*
  • Cognition*
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Individuality
  • Intelligence Tests / statistics & numerical data
  • Likelihood Functions
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Statistical
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Psychological Tests / statistics & numerical data*
  • Psychometrics / statistics & numerical data*
  • Regression Analysis
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sample Size