Brassinosteroid signaling network and regulation of photomorphogenesis

Annu Rev Genet. 2012;46:701-24. doi: 10.1146/annurev-genet-102209-163450. Epub 2012 Sep 27.


In plants, the steroidal hormone brassinosteroid (BR) regulates numerous developmental processes, including photomorphogenesis. Genetic, proteomic, and genomic studies in Arabidopsis have illustrated a fully connected BR signal transduction pathway from the cell surface receptor kinase BRI1 to the BZR1 family of transcription factors. Genome-wide analyses of protein-DNA interactions have identified thousands of BZR1 target genes that link BR signaling to various cellular, metabolic, and developmental processes, as well as other signaling pathways. In controlling photomorphogenesis, BR signaling is highly integrated with the light, gibberellin, and auxin pathways through both direct interactions between signaling proteins and transcriptional regulation of key components of these pathways. BR signaling also cross talks with other receptor kinase pathways to modulate stomata development and innate immunity. The molecular connections in the BR signaling network demonstrate a robust steroid signaling system that has evolved in plants to orchestrate signal transduction, genome expression, metabolism, defense, and development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development*
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism*
  • Arabidopsis / radiation effects
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  • Genes, Plant
  • Gibberellins / genetics
  • Gibberellins / metabolism
  • Light
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism*
  • Photosynthesis
  • Plant Stomata / genetics
  • Plant Stomata / metabolism
  • Protein Interaction Mapping
  • Protein Kinases / genetics
  • Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Receptor Cross-Talk
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • BES1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • BZR1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Gibberellins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Protein Kinases
  • BRI1 protein, Arabidopsis