Up to date research in biology, biotechnology, and medicine requires fast genome and transcriptome analysis technologies for the investigation of cellular state, physiology, and activity. Here, microarray technology and next generation sequencing of transcripts (RNA-Seq) are state of the art. Since microarray technology is limited towards the amount of RNA, the quantification of transcript levels and the sequence information, RNA-Seq provides nearly unlimited possibilities in modern bioanalysis. This chapter presents a detailed description of next-generation sequencing (NGS), describes the impact of this technology on transcriptome analysis and explains its possibilities to explore the modern RNA world.
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