Whole Egg Consumption Improves Lipoprotein Profiles and Insulin Sensitivity to a Greater Extent Than Yolk-Free Egg Substitute in Individuals With Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolism. 2013 Mar;62(3):400-10. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2012.08.014. Epub 2012 Sep 27.

Abstract

Objective: We investigated if daily egg feeding, along with carbohydrate restriction, would alter lipoprotein metabolism and influence atherogenic lipoprotein profiles and insulin resistance in men and women with metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Methods: In a randomized, single-blind, parallel design, participants consumed either 3 whole eggs/day (EGG, n=20) or the equivalent amount of yolk-free egg substitute (SUB, n=17), as part of a moderately carbohydrate-restricted diet (25%-30% energy) for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apos), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities were assessed at baseline and week 12. Lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Results: Atherogenic dyslipidemia improved for all individuals as evidenced by reductions in plasma triglycerides, apoC-III, apoE, oxLDL, VLDL particle diameter, large VDL, total IDL, small LDL, and medium LDL particles (P<0.05). Furthermore, there were increases in HDL-cholesterol, large LDL and large HDL particles (P<0.05) for all individuals. However, there were greater increases in HDL-cholesterol and large HDL particles, and reductions in total VLDL and medium VLDL particles for those consuming EGG compared to SUB (P<0.05). Plasma insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were reduced, while LCAT activity, and both HDL and LDL diameters increased over time in the EGG group only (P<0.05).

Conclusions: Incorporating daily whole egg intake into a moderately carbohydrate-restricted diet provides further improvements in the atherogenic lipoprotein profile and in insulin resistance in individuals with MetS.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Apolipoproteins / blood
  • Apolipoproteins / ultrastructure
  • Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins / blood
  • Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted
  • Eggs*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology*
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / blood
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / ultrastructure
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood
  • Metabolic Syndrome / diagnostic imaging
  • Metabolic Syndrome / metabolism*
  • Middle Aged
  • Particle Size
  • Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase / blood
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • Ultrasonography

Substances

  • Apolipoproteins
  • CETP protein, human
  • Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins
  • Lipoproteins, LDL
  • Triglycerides
  • oxidized low density lipoprotein
  • Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase