Objective: To identify risk factors for cerebral lesions among survivors of twin-twin transfusion syndrome treated with laser surgery.
Study design: A multilevel regression analysis examined risk factors for neonatal cerebral lesions identified by imaging. Imaging was routine in "high-risk survivors," defined as those delivered at <32 weeks' gestation, and by clinical indications if born later. Severe lesions were defined as: intraventricular hemorrhage grade III-IV, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, ventriculomegaly and/or hydrocephalus, microcephaly, infarctions, porencephalic/Dandy-Walker cysts, or bilateral other cysts.
Results: For 262 consecutive laser-treated twin-twin transfusion syndrome patients, 18 neonates had severe lesions identified among 427 individual survivors (4.2%) and 242 "high-risk survivors" (7.4%). Forty-six newborns had any cerebral lesion, resulting in lesion rates of 10.8%-19.0%. Delivery <32 weeks' (odds ratio, 4.95; P < .001) and <28 weeks' (odds ratio, 6.25; P < .001) gestation were associated with increased likelihood of any cerebral lesion.
Conclusion: This cohort showed low rates (4-7%) of severe neonatal cerebral lesions, with prematurity being the primary risk factor.
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