Clinical phenotypes related to smoking cessation

J Subst Abuse Treat. 2013 Mar;44(3):288-94. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2012.08.002. Epub 2012 Sep 28.


Introduction: The aim of the current study is the identification of clinical phenotypes of patients visiting a specialized smoking cessation center and the determination of smoking cessation rate for each phenotype, 1 year after the initial evaluation.

Methods: Seven hundred eighty-three smokers who visited the outpatient clinic were included in the study. Demographic data, smoking habits, tobacco dependence and comorbidities were recorded. Smoking cessation rates and carbon monoxide levels were determined 1 year after the initial evaluation.

Results: The overall smoking cessation rate 1 year after the initial evaluation was 32.3%. Four distinct phenotypes were identified. The first one included mainly young women with low tobacco dependence and allergic profile. The second and the third ones included mainly men with high tobacco dependence, without comorbidities, treated with varenicline and bupropione SR, respectively. The fourth one included mainly older men with high tobacco dependence and smoking related comorbidities. Smoking cessation rates for each phenotype were 33.8, 39.4, 23.3, and 24.6%, respectively.

Conclusion: Patients visiting a specialized smoking cessation center can be categorized in different phenotypes. Phenotyping may lead to a more personalized approach concerning smoking cessation.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenotype
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Smoking / therapy
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology*
  • Smoking Cessation / statistics & numerical data
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / epidemiology
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / psychology
  • Treatment Outcome