The effects of environmental factors on the virulence of Trichomonas vaginalis

Microbes Infect. 2012 Dec;14(15):1411-27. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2012.09.004. Epub 2012 Sep 25.


This review focused on potential regulatory mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis virulence properties, cytoadherence, cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, hemolysis, induction of apoptosis, and immune evasion in response to environmental factors of the human urogenital tract, iron, zinc, and polyamines. Understanding the multifactorial nature of trichomonal pathogenesis and its regulation may help to unravel the survival strategies of trichomonads and to implement prevention policies, opportune diagnosis, and alternative treatments for control of trichomoniasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Trichomonas Vaginitis / metabolism
  • Trichomonas Vaginitis / parasitology*
  • Trichomonas vaginalis / metabolism
  • Trichomonas vaginalis / pathogenicity*
  • Virulence Factors / metabolism
  • Virulence Factors / physiology*


  • Virulence Factors