Objective: To determine whether group B Streptococcus (GBS)-colonized pregnant women have an increased prevalence of GBS colonization in subsequent pregnancies.
Study design: This retrospective cohort study compared the prevalence of GBS colonization in initial and subsequent pregnancies of 158 women with two or more deliveries at a Midwest institution since the initiation of universal screening for GBS.
Results: The GBS colonization rate in index pregnancies was 20%. Colonization rate in subsequent pregnancies for initially GBS-colonized women was 42% compared with 19% for women who were not colonized with GBS in the index pregnancy (p = 0.009). The relative risk for GBS-colonized women to be GBS-colonized in subsequent pregnancies was 2.2 (confidence interval = 1.3 to 3.8).
Conclusion: Previous GBS colonization is a risk factor for GBS colonization in subsequent pregnancies. Consideration of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis in women with a history of GBS colonization, assuming current colonization status is unknown, warrants further investigation.
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