Right ventricular outflow tract strategies for repair of tetralogy of Fallot: effect of monocusp valve reconstruction

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2013 Apr;43(4):743-51. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezs479. Epub 2012 Sep 28.


Objectives: The absence of a pulmonary valve (PV) after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair has been shown to impact postoperative right ventricular (RV) function. The purposes of this study were to (i) compare early outcomes after PV-sparing vs transannular patching (TAP) with monocusp valve reconstruction or TAP alone and (b) assess the mid-term results after polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane monocusp reconstruction.

Methods: From 2003 to 2009, 163 patients underwent TOF repair. Sixty-nine patients (42.3%) underwent a PV-sparing procedure (Group A), 74 (45.4%) underwent PTFE membrane monocusp valve reconstruction (Group B) and 20 (12.3%) underwent TAP only (Group C). Early outcomes were evaluated by the right-to-left ventricular pressure ratio, RV outflow tract gradient, tricuspid and PV function, intensive care unit (ICU) parameters and need for reintervention. Group B patients were also evaluated at intermediate term for clinical and echocardiographic parameters, including tricuspid and monocusp valve function and mobility.

Results: The median age, weight and PV Z-value of Group B patients were significantly lower; 20.5 months, 9.3 kg and -4, respectively. Postoperatively, the right-to-left ventricular pressure ratio was <0.5 in all groups. Mechanical ventilation time, fluid drainage duration and total ICU stay showed no significant difference between Groups A and B, while Group C was significantly longer (P < 0.01). There were five (3%) early deaths: three from Group A and two from Group B. The incidences of moderate or severe pulmonary insufficiency (PI) on discharge were 8.2% in Group A, 9% in Group B and 50% in Group C (P < 0.001). Among Group B patients, 85% of the evaluated patients had less than moderate PI in the intermediate-term follow-up, QRS duration <140 ms in 83.3% and right-to-left ventricular diameter ratio of 0.6 ± 0.2. Two (2.6%) patients underwent reoperation for monocusp replacement. There were two (2.7%) mid-term deaths.

Conclusions: The use of a PTFE membrane monocusp valve and a valve-sparing strategy prevents immediate PI and improves short-term clinical outcomes. PTFE membrane monocusp appears advantageous in preventing severe intermediate-term PI and facilitates the preservation of RV function.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Echocardiography
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Pulmonary Valve / surgery*
  • Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / surgery*
  • Ventricular Outflow Obstruction / surgery*
  • Young Adult